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Yokogawa CSU Series

Yokogawa Spinning Disk Field Scanning Confocal Systems

Spinning Disk Super Resolution by Optical Pixel Reassignment

Adapt the CSU-W1 for super-resolution imaging.

  • 2x Resolution Improvement vs. Widefield
  • Enhanced Resolution and Confocal Sectioning Simultaneously
  • Normal Confocal Mode and SoRa Mode

Key Features

XY Resolution to 120nm

Utilizing magnification and microlensing, an approximately 1.4x improvement beyond the optical limit is achieved, which can further be improved by deconvolution to 2x.




Comparison of widefield image, SoRa raw image with approximately 1.4x improvement, and deconvolved (DCV) SoRa image with approximately 2x improvement.

Optical Pixel Reassignment is ideal for fast imaging

Super-resolution images are acquired optically, on any sample, without special preparations or computation. This allows image collection to be limited only by the sample’s signal-to-noise ratio and the exposure time of the detector. Video rate or faster super resolution imaging is possible.

Microlensing the emission pinhole at the correct magnification counteracts the mismatch between an on-axis excitation PSF and the effective confocal PSF (product of excitation and emission PSFs) through an emission pinhole that is not infinitely small.

By microlensing, individual points’ divergence angle onto the pinhole is reduced 2x, mimicking the effect of an infinitely small ideal pinhole, but not compromising signal brightness.

Reference: T.Azuma and T.Kei “Super-resolution spinning-disk confocal microscopy using optical photon reassignment” Opt.Express 23, 15003-15011 (2015).


SD 50μm



Comparison of widefield, spinning disk with 50μm pinholes, SoRa spinning disk raw, and SoRa spinning disk deconvolved images.

CSU-W1 SoRa is a confocal and a super resolution device

All systems include two spinning disks which can be exchanged easily via software control: a super resolution disk which also includes the capability of optical sectioning, and a standard confocal imaging disk. This means the CSU-W1 SoRa is a confocal field scanning spinning disk system and a confocal super resolution system in a single package.


Sora DCV

Nikon’s high performance objectives are a perfect match for CSU-W1 SoRa

SoRa requires a 60x or 100x objective lens for optimal resolution improvements, and employs an intermediate magnfication of 2.8x for 100x and 4x for 60x to provide optimal effective pixel sizes for super-resolution and deconvolution.

Nikon’s wide variety of 60x and 100x long working distance, high numerical aperture, and correction-collared objectives lenses are a perfect compliment to the system.

Motorized automatic correction collars and automatic water immersion dispensing are optional components on the Nikon Ti2-E inverted platform.

Flexible configurations

Because CSU-W1 SoRa is based on the CSU-W1 platform, single or dual camera models are available. Multiple cameras can also be adapted by attaching additional devices. With the Nikon Ti2-E inverted microscope platform, various additional imaging and photomanipulation devices can be added to the system through the LAPP illuminator including TIRF, digital micromirror devices (DMDs), and photostimulation scanners and devices.