Long-distance, rapid Ca2+ signaling in plants
Masatsugu Toyota, an Associate Professor at Saitama University Graduate School of Science and Engineering, clarified the mechanism by which plants, which do not have a central nervous system, sense damage and transmit this information throughout their bodies, using a large FOV fluorescence stereo microscope and high-sensitivity calcium/glutamate biosensors (GCaMP/iGluSnFR) (Toyota et al., Science 2018). Here we highlight his work, which visualized how wounded leaves transmit signals to other leaves.
The NIKON JOICO AWARD 2019 highest-award winning work
Realtime imaging of signaling process in plants
Using the SMZ25 stereo microscope, cytosolic Ca2+ dynamics, induced by crushing a leaf of Arabidopsis with tweezers (arrows), has been visualized (Fig. 1).This imaging system reveals long-distance, rapid Ca2+ signaling in plants.
Dynamicity of information processing system in plants
This research suggests that plants are capable of transmitting local information throughout their bodies using the plant-specific organs/ structures known as phloem and plasmodesmata, and the glutamate/ glutamate receptor (GLR)/Ca2+ signal system, which is an evolutionarily conserved system in both the plant and animals kingdoms (Fig. 2),
and clarifies that the glutamate-induced Ca2+ signal activates defense responses not only at the wound site, but also in distant unwounded leaves. This finding is expected to lead to the development of new amino acid (glutamate)-based fertilizers and agrichemicals that can control defense responses in plants.
Toyota M*, Spencer D, Sawai-Toyota S, Wang J, Zhang T, Koo AJ, Howe GA, Gilroy S* (2018) Glutamate triggers long-distance, calcium-based plant defense signaling.
Science 361:1112-1115. (*, corresponding author)
A high resolution motorized zoom model that provides a zoom ratio of 25:1. The Auto Link Zoom function maintains the same total magnification when switching objectives.The epi-fluorescence attachment equipped with a fly-eye lens enables acquisition of images with uniform brightness.
Zoom ratio: 25:1 (magnification range: 0.63X to 15.75X)
Maximum total magnification: 315X
Maximum FOV: ø70 mm